CAN-C – N-acetylcarnosine

This area is dedicated to the new clinical discoveries of N-acetylcarnosine, and how it has been shown to be effective in various aging disorders, particularly senile cataract, when used as an eye-drop.

What is N-acetylcarnosine?

N-acetylcarnosine is a di-peptide, (that’s two amino acids linked together). The particularly pure form is known as n-alpha-acetylcarnosine and even acetylcarnosine. Sometimes N-acetylcarnosine is abbreviated to NAC, unfortunately that particular abbreviation is sometimes confused with N-acetylcysteine, which is not the same substance. So for the purposes of clarity on this web site, we shall continue to refer to it as N-acetylcarnosine.

 

What makes N-acetylcarnosine different from L-carnosine?

As an eye-drop what has N-acetylcarnosine been clinically shown to do?

N-acetylcarnosine eye-drops have been shown to help reduce, reverse and slow the occurrence of senile cataract (to be specific this was the purest form known as n-alpha-acetylcarnosine, but for simplicity we will continue to refer to it as n-acetylcarnosine).

Senile cataract is the most commonly performed surgical operation in the world today, some 26,000 people each year, in the United States alone are diagnosed with senile cataract each day. There are 1.35 million eye operations each year in the USA and 2% of them (or 27,000 individuals) develop serious complications as a result of cataract surgery.

Apart from the discomfort experienced by patients as their vision diminishes, and the possibility of being one of the surgical complications, it should not be overlooked that there is a complete lack of accommodation by the removal of the lens. At the end of the day, an artificial lens does not have the optical qualities of a natural lens.

N-acetylcarnosine eye-drops are therefore a major advancement in the control of the age-aging disorder of senile cataract.

The statistics in the human trials show that N-acetylcarnosine eye-drops applied for 6-months, (twice daily into the eye), in patients all suffering from senile cataract, had the following results:

1. 88.9% had an improvement of glare sensitivity.
2. 41.5% had an improvement of the transmissivity of the lens.
3. 90% had an improvement in visual acuity.

This is a genuine breakthrough, because before the development on N-acetylcarnosine eye-drops, the best that could be hoped for would be a slowing of the disorder. This is the very first time that it has been shown that senile cataract can be reversed without surgery.

 

CAN-C – A.K.A. N-acetylcarnosine

Carnosines Letter

This area is dedicated to the new clinical discoveries of N-acetylcarnosine, and how it has been shown to be effective in various aging disorders, particularly senile cataract, when used as an eye-drop.

 

What is N-acetylcarnosine?

N-acetylcarnosine is a di-peptide, (that’s two amino acids linked together). The particularly pure form is known as n-alpha-acetylcarnosine and even acetylcarnosine. Sometimes N-acetylcarnosine is abbreviated to NAC, unfortunately that particular abbreviation is sometimes confused with N-acetylcysteine, which is not the same substance. So for the purposes of clarity on this web site, we shall continue to refer to it as N-acetylcarnosine.

 

What makes N-acetylcarnosine different from L-carnosine?

As you may imagine these chemicals are related, but they are different in terms of structure.

N-acetylcarnosine C11H16N4O4

L-carnosine C9H14N4O3

 

As an eye-drop what has N-acetylcarnosine been clinically shown to do?

N-acetylcarnosine eye-drops have been shown to help reduce, reverse and slow the occurrence of senile cataract (to be specific this was the purest form known as n-alpha-acetylcarnosine, but for simplicity we will continue to refer to it as n-acetylcarnosine).

Senile cataract is the most commonly performed surgical operation in the world today, some 26,000 people each year, in the United States alone are diagnosed with senile cataract each day. There are 1.35 million eye operations each year in the USA and 2% of them (or 27,000 individuals) develop serious complications as a result of cataract surgery.

Apart from the discomfort experienced by patients as their vision diminishes, and the possibility of being one of the surgical complications, it should not be overlooked that there is a complete lack of accommodation by the removal of the lens. At the end of the day, an artificial lens does not have the optical qualities of a natural lens.

N-acetylcarnosine eye-drops are therefore a major advancement in the control of the age-aging disorder of senile cataract.

The statistics in the human trials show that N-acetylcarnosine eye-drops applied for 6-months, (twice daily into the eye), in patients all suffering from senile cataract, had the following results:

1. 88.9% had an improvement of glare sensitivity.
2. 41.5% had an improvement of the transmissivity of the lens.
3. 90% had an improvement in visual acuity.

This is a genuine breakthrough, because before the development on N-acetylcarnosine eye-drops, the best that could be hoped for would be a slowing of the disorder. This is the very first time that it has been shown that senile cataract can be reversed without surgery.

 

How does N-acetylcarnosine work in the eye?

As you may imagine these chemicals are related, but they are different.

As you can imagine this is a complex subject. But essentially, N-acetylcarnosine is a “carrier” for the di-peptide, L-carnosine into the aqueous humor of the eye, (this is the fluid area surrounding the lens). It is here, that the substance becomes most active in its ability to basically act, as a natural and comprehensive anti-oxidant.

Once N-acetylcarnosine has delivered L-carnosine safely through into the aqueous humor, the L-carnosine itself is flushed out of the eye via the canal of schlemm, and once into the bloodstream, it is broken down by carnosinase and excreted.

N-acetylcarnosine is acting as a time release version of carnosine resistant to hydrolysis with carnosinases.

Please note that L-carnosine itself, must not be used as an eye-drop.

 

Can L-carnosine be used in the eye?

No! L-carnosine must not be used topically in the eye.

It has been clinically shown that topical administration of pure L-carnosine to the eye does not lead to accumulation of this compound in the aqueous humor within a reasonable amount of time, or in a concentration exceeding that of the placebo-treated eye.

Exogenous L-carnosine entering the organism is not accumulated by the tissues, but is excreted or destroyed by carnosinase, a dipeptidase enzyme that is present in blood plasma.

A topical eye application of L-carnosine would release the toxic compound, histamine, (which can severely promote oxidation reactions), before it reaches the aqueous humor, and therefore could cause other eye-problems in long-term use.

Due to its relative hydrophobicity, N-acetylcarnosine penetrates through the cornea gradually, thus being able to maintain a longer active therapeutic concentration of L-carnosine directly into the aqueous humor and the lens of the treated eye. Importantly, N-acetylcarnosine is highly resistant to hydrolysis by carnosinases. Different techniques of ocular administration only with N-acetylcarnosine, have proven its efficacy for the treatment of cataracts, combined with excellent tolerability to the eye, safety, and the lack of possible side effects.

To read more technical detail about the action of N-acetylcarnosine eye-drops read on.

Cataract is caused by the nuclear matter of the elderly human lens hardening and taking on a yellowish/ brown color. Hence, once this occurs the obvious vision impairment and deterioration.

This hardening and discoloration of the lens is the result of lifelong cross-linking (or glycosylation), of the lens proteins with ascorbate. This persists in the aqueous humor at high concentrations, due to the kynurenine derivatives, and takes place due to the low availability of natural defenses in the form of anti-oxidants, (which decline with advancing age).

N-acetylcarnosine and intraocular released carnosine can effectively cleave these formed links partially, and scavenge the radicals of tryptophan/ kynurenine and ascorbate radicals. This can be measured by the intensity of fluorescence becoming decreased.

The major role of N-acetylcarnosine and L-carnosine, is their facility to act in the biological system as universal antioxidants. They possess the ability to protect cells from oxidative stress, both in the lipid phase of cellular membranes and in the aqueous environment. L-carnosine is able to reduce the content of lipid peroxidation products in the peroxidized lens fiber cells plasma membranes, and to repair their structure accordingly. It is the only known antioxidant able to protect structural proteins of the lens/ alpha-crystalline, from the free-radical induced oxidation process.

Another advantage is the capability of L-carnosine to stimulate the activity of antioxidant enzymes like SOD in the lens. SOD activity is diminished in the ageing and cataractogenesis processes.

Furthermore, there is published material about the reactivity of carnosine and its derivatives, to quench the potent free radicals, the singlet oxygen species.

Dr. Hipkiss et al., is convinced that carnosine protects protein carbonyls via the carnosylation process. In other studies, it has been indicated that carnosine has the ability to block the glycosylation process, being induced by ascorbate and transition metal ions in the aqueous humor.

It is further believed, that N-acetylcarnosine can prevent and reverse the cross-linking of the lens proteins, including crystallins induced by lipid hydroperoxides and their secondary breakdown molecular products, like aldehydes. This mechanism may be the prominent factor in reversing and preventing the lens opacification, that is related to the glycation reactions of the lens proteins.


Can N-acetylcarnosine be used orally?

No! N-acetylcarnosine must not be used orally.

Because N-acetylcarnosine is resistant to an enzyme called carnisinases, (whereas L-carnosine is not very resistant), some companies have been promoting very high oral dosages of L-carnosine to try to overcome breakdown. Therefore, some people have thought (incorrectly), that N-acetylcarnosine can be used orally instead of L-carnosine.

But, the reason that N-acetylcarnosine cannot be used orally is because it is not absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. If N-acetylcarnosine is taken orally, then over time it can release histamine into the intestine. When used at low concentrations, this has induced food anaphylaxis, which lead to shortened lives for flies.

If you want to learn more about why N-acetylcarnosine is not absorbed from the intestine to the plasma upon its oral consumption, we offer the following published article:

High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of N-acetyl-L-carnosine in equine plasma.
Journal of Chromatography Biomedical Applications, 688 (1997) 150-154.

Until more is understood about N-acetylcarnosine and its oral use in humans, this route of administration must be avoided. However, N-acetylcarnosine has been shown to be safe and effective for humans when used as an eye-drop or as an intra-nasal spray.

 

How long will I have to use N-acetylcarnosine eye-drops?

N-acetylcarnosine has been shown to have measurable affects within only 1-month!

However, it is recommended that for maximum efficacy, that administration be continued for a period not less than 3-5 months. As most of the clinical trials have been measured at 3 and 6 month periods, a period of 6-months should be considered. Treatment dosages are at 1 or 2 drops, twice a day.

However, it should be considered that senile cataract is an aging disorder. It is because of low anti-oxidant and higher free radical activity, that N-acetylcarnosine may be required on a regular basis to help maintain the eye’s natural anti-oxidant defenses and therefore help to prevent a reappearance of senile cataract and other eye degenerative disorders. As a preventative measure, 1-drop into the eye once a day with frequent breaks may be a suitable on-going regime.

 

Will N-acetylcarnosine eye-drops be useful for other eye-disorders?

Other than senile cataract, N-acetylcarnosine may have other benefits. Although the information is not yet published, Dr. Mark Babizhayev believes that the unique N-acetylcarnosine formula with its added and synergistic lubricants, could also have benefit in the following eye-disorders:

1. Presbyopia.
2. Open-angle primary glaucoma (in combination with beta-blockers).
3. Corneal disorders.
4. Computer vision syndrome.
5. Eye strain.
6. Ocular inflammation.
7. Blurred vision.
8. Dry eye syndrome.
9. Retinal diseases.
10. Vitreous opacities and lesions.
11. Complications of diabetes mellitus and other systemic diseases.
12. Benefit for those people who wear contact lenses, particularly soft contact lenses. (Not only do the lubricants in the Can-C® n-acetylcarnosine eye-drop help to make wearing contact lenses more comfortable, but n-acetylcarnosine is also believed to reduce the build up of lactic acid in the eye, thus enabling the lens to be left safely in the eye for longer).