Macular Degeneration Research
1. A preliminary study showed those consuming Lutein from either spinach or supplements demonstrated improvement of some of the early vision loss from ‘dry’ macular degeneration. Richer, J. Amer Optom Assoc; Jan 1999.
2. Consuming 6 mg of the Caroteinoid Lutein (w/ its co-nutrient Zeaxanthin) daily for five months was shown to significantly increase macular pigment density, which protects from harmful blue wavelength light believed to be most responsible for macular degeneration.
Landrum, et al. Exp Eye Res 1997 Jul;65(1):57-62
3. High macular pigment density was associated with the retention of youthful visual sensitivity, which suggested that increasing macular pigment might retard age-related declines in visual function. Hammond, et al. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1997 Aug; 38(9): 1795-801.
4. Persons who had the lowest serum levels of Lycopene, the most abundant Carotenoid in the serum, were twice as likely to have macular degeneration when compared to those with the highest levels. Mares-Perlman, et al. Arch Ophthalmol 1995 Dec;113(12):1518-23
5. Those consuming Lutein rich foods (spinach and collard greens) five days per week were 8 times less likely to develop macular degeneration as those consuming them once per month. Seddon, et al. JAMA 1994 Nov 9;272(18):1413-20
6. The ARMD population manifested decreased intake of vitamin E, magnesium, zinc, vitamin B6 and folic acid. Patients with advanced ARMD taking antioxidants twice-daily maintained vision in their better functioning eyes significantly better than those taking a placebo. Richer, J Am Optom Assoc 1996 Jan;67(1):12-29 J Am Optom Assoc 1996 Jan;67(1):30-49
7. Smokers with early macular degeneration who consumed the lowest amounts of Carotenoids were nearly 6X as likely to develop advanced macular degeneration than those consuming the highest amounts. Seddon, et al. J. Amer Med Assoc; 1994.
8. In a clinical trial 60% of subjects with ARMD or diabetic macular oedema who received 500 mg of vitamin C, 400 IU of vitamin E, 15,000 IU of beta-carotene and selenium showed either improvement or no further progression of their disease. So Med J, 1987.
9. The evidence suggests that Carotenoids and antioxidant vitamins may help to retard some of the destructive processes in the retina and the retinal pigment epithelium that are responsible for age-related degeneration of the macula. Am J Clin Nutr 1995 Dec;62(6 Suppl):1448S-1461S
10. The minerals copper and zinc are required to synthesize superoxide dismutase and other enzymes in the retina which scavenge free radicals, preventing the oxidative damage which plays a role in the development of drusen, an early sign of Age-Related Macular
Degeneration. Olin, et al: Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1995 Apr;208(4):370-7
11. Glutathione and its related enzyme precursor amino acids (N-Acetyl-Cysteine, L-Glycine, and glutamine and selenium) are protective against damage to human retinal pigment epithelium cells. Sternberg, Davidson, Jones, et al. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1993 Dec;34(13):3661-8
12. Quercetin protected bovine retinas in vitro from induced lipid peroxidation, especially when combined with vitamin E, suggesting a potential protective effect in age-related macular degeneration. Ophthalmic Res 1996;28(3):184-92.
13. Deficiency of Taurine, an amino acid, has been shown to lead to retinal degeneration and supplementing it has been used with some success to prevent, treat and stabilise retinal changes. Altern Med Rev 1998 Apr;3(2):128-36. Oftalmol Zh 1989;(8):463-5 Brain Res Brain Res Rev 1991 May-Aug;16(2):151-69 J Neurosci Res 1987;18(4):602-14
14. After 18 months, subjects with macular degeneration who took antioxidants on a consistent basis were two and a half times more likely to improve on visual acuity testing, and four times less likely to deteriorate in their worst eye, compared to those who took them less consistently. Olson, et al. J. Cat Refr Surg, Mar 1991.
15. Patients with confluent soft drusen, or ‘pre-wet’ ARMD, were found to have evidence of vitamin B6 deficiency. B. Lane, Ann Mtg Amer Coll of Nutrition, 1991.
16. General measures for prevention and remediation of macular degeneration would include a combination of supplementation with trace elements, antioxidants and other vitamins, …increasing physical fitness, improving nutrition (e.g. avoiding hydrogenated oils), abstaining from smoking, and protection from excessive light exposure. Eur J Med Res 1997 Oct 30;2(10):445-54
17. There is an association between both low serum selenium levels and current smoking status and the development of age-related macular degeneration. Doc Ophthalmol 1992;81(4):387-400 Mayer, et al. Acta Ophthalmol Scand 1998 Feb;76(1):62-7
18. There was an inverse relationship between dietary pro-vitamin A Carotenoid and vitamin E consumption and the incidence of large macular drusen, as well as between zinc levels and the incidence of retinal pigment abnormalities. Am J Epidemiol 1998 Jul 15;148(2):204-14
19. The evidence suggests that Carotenoids and antioxidant vitamins may help to retard some of the destructive processes in the retina and the retinal pigment epithelium that lead to age-related degeneration of the macula. Snodderly, Am J Clin Nutr 1995;62(6 suppl):1448S-61S
20. Subnormal zinc and/or vitamin E serum levels may be associated with as much as an 82% increased risk of advanced age-related macular degeneration. Vitamin C and Lipoic acid help to recycle vitamin E in the retinal tissues. Ishihara, et al. Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi 1997 Mar;101(3):248-51. Delcourt C. et al. Arch Ophthalmol 1999 Oct;117(10):1384- 90 Stoyanovsky DA, et al. Curr Eye Res 1995 Mar;14(3):181-9
21. In a study of adults over 60 there was found to be a significant link between risk of macular degeneration and low blood levels of vitamin E as well as increased sun exposure. Belda, et al Mech Ageing Dev 1999 Mar 1;107(2):159-64
22. A statistically significant improvement in visual acuity was observed after treatment with Ginkgo Biloba extract in a double blind, placebo controlled study of macular degeneration patients. Lebuisson DA, et al. Presse Med 1986 Sep 25;15(31):1556-8
23. Those consuming fish more than once per week were only half as likely to develop macular degeneration than those consuming it less than once per month. Those consuming the highest amount of cholesterol in their diet were 2.7 times more likely to develop advanced macular degeneration. Smith, et al. Arch Ophthalmol 2000 Mar;118(3):401-4
24. Dietary enzymes increase Glutathione synthesis that can prevent free radical-induced apoptosis (cell suicide) and may help prevent or treat AMD. Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, 2000, Vol. 19, Iss.2 pp 205-221 (No abstract available)